[4], The Navy revived its requirement for a "cruiser-killer" during the war, but the design process was quite lengthy as questions as to its armament, speed and size were debated. But even this was subject to more delays as the detailed specifications had to be approved and this didn't occur until 31 August 1948, likely delayed by the Tito–Stalin split and the start of the Berlin Blockade, both in June. The list of battleships includes all battleships built between c. 1890 and 1946, arranged alphabetically by country. Kostenko. [3] However, World War I and the Russian Civil War interrupted the construction of the Russian Borodino-class ships and all were scrapped. A series of at least four were planned, and Stalingrad finally began construction in 1951. [18], The first sections of Stalingrad had been laid down in November 1951 in Slipway "O" of the Marti South Shipyard in Nikolayev where a Sovetsky Soyuz-class battleship, Sovetskaya Ukraina, had begun construction in 1938,[19] but the slipway itself was in need of reconstruction and its lower end was occupied by the hull of the Sverdlov-class light cruiser Mikhail Kutuzov which was scheduled for launch at the end of 1952. Its rate of fire was 75 rounds per minute and 800 rounds were carried for each gun. The guns in this mount could depress to −13° and elevate to 85° at a rate of 25° a second. In 1992 it … The detailed design was supposed to be completed by 15 October 1941, but it was rendered pointless when the Germans invaded the Soviet Union in June. [5], In the 1970s, the Navy initiated a project to construct a nuclear-powered ship capable of accommodating anti-aircraft, anti-ship and anti-submarine guided missiles in a single hull. The goal of this site is two fold. "[1] Estimated characteristics were a displacement between 20,000–22,000 tonnes (20,000–22,000 long tons), nine main guns between 210–230 mm (8.3–9.1 in), a secondary battery of a dozen 130-millimeter (5.1 in) dual-purpose guns and thirty-two 37 mm AA guns. The proposed size of the ship continually escalated as the requirement was revised to allow it to fight larger ships like the German Scharnhorst-class battleships. A Russian crew found its way to the United Kingdom at the beginning of 1944 and commissioned the battleship officially as the Arkhangelsk on May 30, 1944. Their barbettes had a maximum of 235 mm (9.3 in) on their forward faces and 200 mm (7.9 in) on the after face. The 130 mm turrets were only protected by 25 mm (0.98 in) of armor as splinter protection. Presumably the thinner thicknesses were at the ends of the ships where the bulkheads were squeezed together. [38] The fourth unit, Yuri Andropov, was launched in April 1989, with plans advanced for a fifth ship, to be named Kuznetsov. The original role was for a light, fast ship intended to break up attacks by British fast-cruiser forces that might attempt bombardment of Russia's northern ports. [10], The TsKB-17 design bureau proposed variants of the design with both cruise and ballistic missiles. The latter's design was slightly smaller (2,000 tonnes (2,000 long tons)) than the Navy's 40,000 tonnes (39,000 long tons) design, and had an armor belt 50 mm (2.0 in) thinner, but was otherwise almost identical. The four Borodino-class battlecruisers (also referred to as Izmail class) of the Imperial Russian Navy were all laid down in December 1912[note 2] at Saint Petersburg for service with the Baltic Fleet. Maximum speed was 35.5 knots (65.7 km/h; 40.9 mph). Two boiler compartments, each with three boilers, were situated underneath the forward funnel, with a turbine compartment for the wing shafts immediately aft and this arrangement was repeated for the two center shafts. Admiral Nakhimov (Russian: Адмирал Нахимов) is the third battlecruiser of the Russian Navy 's Kirov class. Design work had just started when the German invasion of the Soviet Union opened and the design was put on hold. Each individual gun weighed 402.8 kg (888 lb) and the complete mount weighed 9.75 t (9.60 long tons; 10.75 short tons). Her hull was launched on 16 April 1954 and her stern, which was more or less complete, was dismantled—her bow hadn't been built when work was suspended a year earlier—and the central, 150-meter (490 ft) long, section was modified for her new role. [19], The Navy reissued its requirements for a large cruiser to destroy enemy light cruisers in 1943, but none of the designs submitted were acceptable. Reviews by the Navy and Shipbuilding Ministries in February 1951 led to some significant changes to the design in April. The Soviet Navy that fought in WW2 was a small (comparatively however on a larger scale than the kriegsmarine) in 1941, but with losses and fall in wartime production, dwindled rapidly; Nevertheless she was still an asset that Stalin used at best in the black sea and the Baltic until 1945. February 5, 2020, 5:30 PM. [3], This was reaffirmed by a decree of the Council of Ministers on 28 January 1947. The outer space was left empty, but the two middle spaces were filled with oil that was intended to be exchanged with sea water as it was consumed, and the inner space was also to be left empty. [note 4][39][34][40] However, the fall of the Soviet Union saw funding for the Navy collapse—the fourth ship, renamed as Pyotr Velikiy (Peter the Great), was not commissioned until 1998, while the fifth hull was cancelled, and the remaining three laid up in varying states of disrepair. [21], These ships were canceled on 18 April 1953, after Stalin's death on 5 March, by the Ministry of Transport and Heavy Machinery,[21] and the hulls of Moskva and the third ship were scrapped on the slipways later that year. The proposal was dropped because both types would have needed a fully stabilized launching platform to give them any chance of hitting their targets and that the ballistic missiles would need three hours of preparation time. It was a smaller and less-expensive counterpart to the Kronshtadt -class battlecruisers of 1939. Four were ordered shortly afterward, but the beginning of the Great Purge in August 1937 hindered the completion of the design process and the project was cancelled in early 1938 after being criticized as too weak in comparison to foreign ships. [7], This allowed the technical design process to begin and it was completed in December 1950. [14], Forty 25-millimeter (0.98 in) 79-caliber AA guns were carried in ten quadruple powered BL-120 mounts. The hull had to be patched, the water pumped out and all the projections removed to raise the stern slightly with pontoons, pivot into deeper water, then trim it down to elevate the bow off the bottom and pull it free. The Giuis-2 also interfered with ultra-shortwave radio reception. Preliminary design work was not completed until 1948 and the size of the ship ballooned to 40,000 tonnes (39,368 long tons). Aft there was a lightly protected auxiliary control station with 50 mm sides. She served as a target for the first generation of Soviet anti-ship missiles and a wide variety of armor-piercing weapons before she was scrapped in the early 1960s, probably 1962. It was a smaller and less-expensive counterpart to the Kronshtadt -class battlecruisers of 1939. [11], The forward conning tower had a forward face of 250 mm (9.8 in) that thinned down to 225 mm on the aft section with a 100-millimeter (3.9 in) roof. The design was done by one of the best Russian engineers, V.P. It was later determined that they could be used, so the agreement was finalized in November 1940 with the deliveries scheduled from October 1941 to 28 March 1943. [22], The first ship was begun in November 1951 and the other two followed in 1952; a fourth was apparently ordered from the Severodvinsk shipyard, but was cancelled before being laid down. These last weapons were changed to 25 mm (0.98 in) in 1945. They were to be fitted in a new twin-gun BL-109A dual-purpose mount. This ship has an impressive armament of missiles and gun and an impressive collection of electronics. It was to be armored to withstand 203 mm shells with a speed not less than 36 knots (67 km/h; 41 mph), a range of 10,000 nautical miles (19,000 km; 12,000 mi) at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph) and able to carry four seaplanes launched by two catapults. [17], The main air-search radar was the Giuis-2 (NATO designation Cross Bird), a Soviet development of the wartime British Type 291 radar. The guns in this mount could depress to −8° and elevate to 83° at a rate of 20° a second. The Ministry ordered in June that Stalingrad's hull, which was about 70% ready for launching, be used for weapons tests. [13], The 130-mm 58-caliber guns were also a new design. Stalingrad's hull was ordered to be used for weapons tests while the two other ships were scrapped where they lay. It has 430 ships in active service or in reserve. Traverse speed was 4.5° per second and each turret was ordinarily remotely controlled from the More-82 main fire control director, but could be locally controlled if necessary. Air search capability was provided by the Fut-N (NATO designation Slim Net) radar with anti-aircraft fire control provided by Fut-B (NATO designation Hawk Screech) radars. This design was approved by the Council of Ministers on 25 March 1950. They were designed in response to the battleships being built by Germany. He also ordered a reduction in the light anti-aircraft guns believing that its escorts would defend it. Undeterred, the Navy continued studying cruiser designs and planned a ten-year construction program for the period 1946–1955. The steering gear was protected by 170 mm (6.7 in) of armor on the sides, a 70–100-millimeter (2.8–3.9 in) deck and a 200-millimeter (7.9 in) armored bulkhead aft. These ships had a complex and prolonged design process which was hampered by constantly changing requirements and the Great Purge in 1937. In 1992 it was renamed Admiral Ushakov. They were the first large Soviet-built ships with a flush deck. "[10] The triple bottom underneath the armored citadel was believed to protect the ship against a charge equivalent to 500 kg (1,100 lb) of TNT 5 metres (16 ft) below the ship's hull. Solentse-1P infrared detectors were carried on either side of the superstructure. "You cannot blindly copy the Americans and English, they face different conditions, their ships travel far over the ocean, out of touch with their bases. By 1 January 1953 Stalingrad was intended to be 42.9% complete, but was actually only 18.8% done. Thus, after his death in 1953, little time was wasted in cancelling the three ships that had been laid down. [18] Neither ship had progressed very far at that time and both had been damaged during the war, so they were ordered scrapped on 24 March 1947 after some thought had been given to completing Kronshtadt as either an aircraft carrier or a mother ship for whalers. The Sovetsky Soyuz-class battleships (Project 23, Russian: Советский Союз, "Soviet Union"), also known as "Stalin's Republics", were a class of battleships begun by the Soviet Union in the late 1930s but never brought into service. Soviet electronics were still fairly primitive during this period and the trials of the light cruiser Sverdlov, which carried many of these systems, revealed that the effective range of the Rif-A surface-search radar was less than that of the Yakor and Zalp fire-control radars. She was the most-described and filmed ship of the Country of the Soviets. The ships were launched in 1915–1916, but the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917 put a stop to their construction, which never resumed. This was based on defensive operations along the periphery of the Soviet Union against Anglo-American carrier groups while submarines would attack their lines of communication. Each individual gun weighed 4.88 t (4.80 long tons; 5.38 short tons) and the complete turret weighed 65.2 t (64.2 long tons; 71.9 short tons). A fourth ship was apparently ordered from Yard 402, but was never laid down. The start of World War Islowed their construction still further as the foreign orders were often not delivered and domestic production was diverted into things more i… The Kirov class, Soviet designation Project 1144 Orlan (sea eagle), is a class of nuclear-powered guided missile cruisers of the Soviet Navy and Russian Navy, the largest and heaviest surface combatant warships (i.e. The Soviets envisioned one of these projects, the Kronshtadt-class battlecruiser, to be faster than Germany’s Bismarck-class battleship and more powerful than … [10], Eight 750-kilowatt (1,010 hp) turbo-generators drove the 380V, 50 Hz electrical system in addition to four 1,000-kilowatt (1,300 hp) Diesel generators located outside each end of the armored citadel for a total capacity of 10,000 kW. When they said no, he then asked if any twin 380-millimeter (15 in) turrets were available instead. Moskva was planned to be 11.5% finished, but was only 7.5% done. It had a vertical height of 5.25 m (17.2 ft), 1.7 m (5 ft 7 in) of which was below the design waterline. The waterline forward of the citadel was protected by a 50-millimeter (2.0 in) splinter belt all the way to the bow, with a similar extension aft to the steering gear compartment. However, when Stalin reviewed the sketch design in September 1949, he rejected it, ordering a smaller, faster ship capable of 35 knots (65 km/h; 40 mph). [32] Following the appearance of Kirov, two more units, Frunze and Kalinin, were commissioned at four-year intervals. The battlecruiser story started with the British, so it seems only fair to examine their World War II battlecruisers first. [11], The waterline belt armor was 180 mm (7.1 in) thick and inclined outwards at an angle of 15° to maximize its effectiveness against both plunging and horizontal fire. Admiral Lazarev (Russian: Адмирал Лазарев) is the second Kirov-class battlecruiser.Until 1992 she was named Frunze (Russian: Фрунзе) after a Project 68 cruiser (named after Bolshevik leader Mikhail Frunze); at that time she was renamed after Russian admiral Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev.The ship is currently laid up and in reserve status The middle deck behind this splinter belt was 50 mm (2.0 in) thick. [22], Stalingrad's hull was towed from Nikolayev on 19 May 1955 by three tugs, but was driven ashore by high winds on 23 May at the southern entrance to Sevastopol Bay. The hull of the most advanced ship was used as a target and the other two were scrapped on their slipways. The most likely explanation is that the designers retained as much of their original work as possible and found room for the more powerful turbines and more numerous boilers necessary to attain Stalin's specified speed by deleting the two rear twin 130 mm turrets, and their magazines, as revealed by a comparison of the 1949 and 1951 sketches. After the end of the Russo-Japanese War of 1905, the Russian Naval General Staff decided that it needed a squadron of fast "armored cruisers" (Броненосный крейсер; bronenosnyy kreyser)[note 1]that could use their speed to maneuver into position to engage the head of the enemy's battle line, much as Admiral Tōgō had done during the Battle of Tsushima against the Russian fleet. Built in the late 1980s, the Kirov-class battlecruisers were designed—like much of the Soviet navy at the time—to neutralize American carrier battle groups during warfare. The Stalingrads also had Neptun and Nord navigational radars. Below the main deck they were protected by only 195–155 mm (7.7–6.1 in) of armor. Pages in category "World War II battleships of the Soviet Union" The following 7 pages are in this category, out of 7 total. Traverse speed was 30° per second. These were backed up by a single KDP-8-10 optical director mount fitted with 8-meter (26 ft) and 10-meter (33 ft) rangefinders. … The World War II Database is founded and managed by C. Peter Chen of Lava Development, LLC. During the Cold War, Russia built four 252m long, 28,000 ton monsters: Huge, heavily armoured ‘battlecruisers’ specifically designed to carry a cargo of high powered, long range missiles. [1], The project was revived in 1943 with a new requirement issued on 15 September. [30][31] However, the sinking of the Israeli destroyer INS Eilat in 1967 by anti-ship missiles fired from an Egyptian missile boat led to a re-think of the use of surface ships in the role. The official name for this class is Project 1144 or Sea Eagle, but it is also called Kirov after the name of the first battlecruiser to be built. The hull was completely welded to save weight and they used longitudinal framing throughout. In the F2P game World of Warships, strangely enough, the battlecruiser Scharnhorst, with her 11-inch (280 mm) main artillery actually used in World War II, is a paid premium ship at rank VII, while the Gneisenau, never completed with 15-inch (380-mm) guns, is … The biggest and heaviest warship in the world is Russian – the Kirov – class Battlecruiser. Between the middle and lower decks the funnel uptakes were protected by 100 mm of armor and 30 mm (1.2 in) between the upper and middle decks. They were intended to fend off enemy attacks and protect the carriers when bad weather prevented flying. When Frunze was commissioned in 1984, it was seen to have a different weapons fit to Kirov, with the pair of single 100 mm guns swapped for a twin 130-millimetre (5.1 in) turret, and the SS-N-14 Silex ASW missile system deleted in favour of adding eight SA-N-9 Gauntlet SAM launchers. This compromise was approved on 27 November 1945 and detailed design work began in 1946 for designs equipped with both the 220 mm and 305 mm guns. "[6] The admirals also did not like the reduction in the secondary armament made to accommodate the larger machinery and extra boilers needed to reach the speed desired by Stalin, but he reminded them that most aircraft would attack the battlecruiser at heights below 1,500 m (4,900 ft) and the ceiling of the 130 mm was far in excess of that. Initial attempts to pull it off the rocks by brute force failed, and the capsizing of the battleship Novorossiysk further delayed salvage work, so that she was not freed until mid-1956. [3], A bigger problem was the resistance of the Shipbuilding Commissariat which said it would be impossible to lay down any ships of new design until about 1950 and that only incremental changes could be made to the designs currently in production. Each individual gun weighed 101.58 t (99.98 long tons; 111.97 short tons) and the complete turret weighed 1,370 t (1,350 long tons; 1,510 short tons). Robert Farley. [42][43] Once Admiral Nakhimov has rejoned the fleet, Pyotr Velikiy is planned to undergo a similar modernization.
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